Official U.K.C. Breed Standard*
Companion Dogs Group
Copyright 1993, United Kennel Club, Inc.
The Xoloitzcuintli is a very ancient Latin American breed, dating back to before the time of the Aztec Empire, and its existence can be substantiated for as far back as three thousand years. They were held in high esteem by the native Toltec and Mayan civilizations. The Aztecs, however, extended their appreciation of the breed to one of a culinary nature. With the defeat of the Aztecs and their culture by the Spanish, the breed diminished drastically, essentially becoming rare. It is thought the breed was saved from extinction by its adoption by remote, mountain-dwelling Indians.
Never entirely forgotten, interest in the breed was eventually revived and it was formally recognized by the FCM (Mexican Kennel Club) in 1956.
The Xoloitzcuintli was recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1993.
GENERAL APPEARANCE & CHARACTERISTICS
The Xoloitzcuintli has a clean and graceful outline, combining the elegance of a sighthound with the strength and proportions of a terrier. There are two varieties: hairless and coated. The hairless variety exhibits a total, or almost total, absence of hair. The coated variety has a short, flat coat with no thin or bare patches. For U.K.C. conformation events, the hairless and coated varieties are shown together. The breed is, however, divided by size varieties - Toy, Miniature and Standard - for exhibition.
In conformation, the breed has a harmonious effect, with graceful movement and lean, well-proportioned extremities. The height to body length proportion is in a ratio of 9 to 10 height being equal to length is acceptable. Medium bone is ideal, however bone type should be in proportion to the overall size of the dog. The larger the dog, the more bone that is acceptable, keeping in mind that the breed exhibits an overall view of elegance and of strength.
They are naturally calm, happy and alert, with a thoughtful, intelligent and vivacious expression; all showing the noble and faithful character of the breed. A good adult example is one that is somewhat quiet and tranquil, barking or growling only under provocation.
Puppies do not resemble adults as they are blunt-nosed, short-legged and frequently very noisy, characteristics which they retain until they are approximately one year of age.
HEAD AND SKULL
The skull is somewhat broad and strong, but not coarse. When at attention, they will show distinctive brow wrinkles. The planes of the muzzle and the skull are not separate and blend smoothly one to the other. The stop is not pronounced. In length, the muzzle is proportionately longer than the skull. Seen in profile, is it similar to a wedge. The jawline blends smoothly with the base of the muzzle, without brusque changes. In profile it will be slightly curved in its upper line. A strong lower jaw is essential. The lips perfectly cover the teeth and have tight skin.
Strong, white teeth meet in a scissors or level bite. Undershot or overshot bites are not acceptable.
A full complement is required in the coated variety. A complete set of incisors is preferred in the hairless variety, but a lack thereof is not to be penalized. Lack of premolars is acceptable in the hairless variety.
The medium size, almond shaped eyes are medium set, neither sunken nor protruding. Eye color ranges from yellow to a very dark brown (almost black), with the darker being preferred. Both eyes are to be of the same color.
The eyelid pigment will be dark on dark dogs, and self colored or light on self-colored or light dogs.
The nose is dark in dark dogs, brown in bronze dogs, and spotted as the rest of the body only in spotted dogs.
The uncropped, large, elegant ears are expressive. They are set on more on the side of the head, and are carried erect when the dog is alert. Ear leather is thin and delicate.
Fault: Ears not standing erect by one year of age.
The proportionately long neck is slightly arched. The neck is slender at the point of insertion with the head, widening gradually at the insertion with the body, at the withers.
The shoulder is attached to the upper arm at a 45-degree angle. The flat, smooth shoulder blades provide free movement. The prosternum (point of shoulder) angulation is in a proportion to allow for free movement and extended reach, but not so much as to allow the elbows to bow out.
The elbows are firm and tight, allowing for reach. They are not so loose as to allow for elbowing out, not so tight as to create toeing out. When viewed from all sides, the forelegs are straight and parallel. They are set well under the body to allow for a long and elegant step, in proportion to the size of the dog. The strong, straight pasterns turn neither in nor out.
The backline is level, with a slight arch over the loin. The back is level and firm. The croup is rounded and relatively broad. It is neither sunken at the withers nor roached over the loin. The chest is well-developed, the brisket reaching to the point of the elbow. The ribs are well-developed, but not barrel-shaped.
Faults: Sunken at the withers. Roached over the loin. Sunken (sway, weak) back. Roached back.
Hindquarter angulation is of proportionate depth to allow for a strong driving rear.
Serious faults: Straight hock. Over-angulated hock.
The upper thigh is straight and well muscled, giving the impression of power. Muscular development is not so overdone as to restrict free-flowing movement. The stifle is not obtuse or over-angulated. When viewed from behind, the rear pasterns, from the hock joint to the feet, are straight. The hocks turn neither in nor out.
Serious fault: Cowhocks.
They have hare feet, webbed with strong, well-arched toes. Pads are smooth and strong. Nails are black on darkdogs, light nails on dogs with little foot pigmentation is acceptable. Hair on the feet of the hairless variety is acceptable. Dewclaws may be removed from both the front and the rear.
The tail is set on low. It is fine and long, reaching to the hock. It may be carried gaily, but not over the back. The hairless variety may have a moderate amount of coarse hair on the lower half of the tail. A fully covered tail is required in the coated variety.
COAT AND SKIN
In mature specimens, the skin is clean, without any wrinkles or dewlap. In young dogs, however, wrinkled skin is still present. Hair may be of any color. There are two coat varieties, hairless and coated. The characteristics of each are:
The principal characteristic of this variety is the general absence of hair, but the presence of a wisp of short, not very dense, hair on the forehead, nape, tail and feet is common. This hair is not soft nor of great length. A very short crest of hair on the top of the skull is acceptable. A total lack of hair in these regions is desirable.
Serious fault: Hair on any other areas than the head, nape, tail and feet.
The hair is short and lays close to the body. A fully coated tail is required on the coated variety.
Any color combination is allowed.
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT
Height ranges, measured at the withers:
- TOY up to, and including, 13 inches;
- MINIATURE - over 13 inches up to, and including, 18 inches
- STANDARD - over 18 inches up to, and including, 23 inches.
At a fast trot, movement is free and effortless. As speed increases the dog will tend to single track, but the legs never do incline so far that the feet travel in a single line.
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Extreme viciousness or shyness. Dogs over 23 inches in height. Cropped ears.
* NOTE: This information has been contributed by, and is property of The United Kennel Club, Inc. and is gratefully used here with permission.
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